« Atlantic Salmon Ecosystems Research Team

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2016 Publications

Bradbury, I. R., L. C. Hamilton, G. Chaput, M. J. Robertson, H. Goraguer, A. Walsh, V. Morris, D. Reddin, J. B. Dempson, T. F. Sheehan, T. King, and L. Bernatchez. 2016. Genetic mixed stock analysis of an interceptory Atlantic salmon fishery in the Northwest Atlantic. Fisheries Research 174:234-244.

2015 Publications

Bradbury, I. R., L. C. Hamilton, S. Rafferty, D. Meerburg, R. Poole, J. B. Dempson, M. J. Robertson, D. G. Reddin, V. Bourret, M. Dionne, G. Chaput, T. F. Sheehan, T. L. King, J. R. Candy, and L. Bernatchez. 2015. Genetic evidence of local exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a coastal subsistence fishery in the Northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 72:83–95.

Hussey, N. E., S. T. Kessel, K. Aarestrup, S. J. Cooke, P. D. Cowley, A. T. Fisk, R. G. Harcourt, K. N. Holland, S. J. Iverson, J. F. Kocik, J. E. Mills Flemming, and F. G. Whoriskey. 2015. Aquatic animal telemetry: a panoramic window into the underwater world. Science 348:1255642-1-1255642-10.

Kelly, J. T., D. T. Lerner, M. F. O’Dea, A. M. Regish, M. Y. Monette, J. P. Hawkes, K. H. Nislow, and S. D. McCormick. 2015. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts. Journal of Fish Biology 87:1129-1146.

Minke-Martin, V., J. B. Dempson, T. F. Sheehan, and M. Power. 2015. Otolith-derived estimates of marine temperature use by West Greenland Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). ICES Journal of Marine Science 72:2139-2148.

Nieland, J. L., T. F. Sheehan, and R. Saunders. 2015. Assessing demographic effects of dams on diadromous fish: a case study for Atlantic salmon in the Penobscot River, Maine. ICES Journal of Marine Science 72:2423-2437.

Renkawitz, M. D., T. F. Sheehan, H. J. Dixon, and R. Nygaard. 2015. Changing trophic structure and energy dynamics in the Northwest Atlantic: implications for Atlantic salmon feeding at West Greenland. Marine Ecology Progress Series 538:197-211.

Stich, D.S., M. T. Kinnison, J. F. Kocik, and J. D. Zydlewski. 2015. Initiation of migration and movement rates of Atlantic salmon smolts in fresh water. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 72:1339-1351.

Stich, D. S., G. B. Zydlewski, J. F. Kocik, and J. D. Zydlewski. 2015. Linking behavior, physiology, and survival of Atlantic salmon smolts during estuary migration. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 7:68–86.

2014 Publications

Ardren, W. R., Busack, C., and  Kocik, J. F. 2014. Collaboration between Atlantic and Pacific salmon biologists to enhance recovery of endangered salmon in North America. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 24(3): 685-688.

Byron, C. J., A. J. Pershing, J. D. Stockwell, H. Xue, and J.F. Kocik 2014. Migration model of post‐smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Gulf of Maine. Fisheries Oceanography 23(2): 172–189.

Good, M.J. and Kocik, J.F. 2014. The Intern Mentor Experience: a sample of the real word. Pages 31-38 in W.W. Taylor, A.J. Lynch, and N.J. Leonard, editors. Future of fisheries: perspectives for emerging professionals. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Hayes, S.A. and Kocik, J.F.  2014. Comparative marine migration ecology of Atlantic salmon and steelhead - blue highways and open plains. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 24(3): 757-780.

Bradbury, I.R., Hamilton, L. C. Rafferty, S. Meerburg, D., Poole, R., Dempson, J. B. Robertson; M. J., Reddin, D. G, Bourret, V., Dionne, M., Chaput, G., Sheehan, T. F., King, T. L. and Bernatchez, L. 2014. Genetic evidence of local exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a coastal subsistence fishery in the Northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Published on the web 11 September 2014, 10.1139/cjfas-2014-0058

2013 Publications

Hawkes, J.P., R.Saunders, A.D. Saunders and M.S. Cooperman. 2013. Assessing Efficacy of Non-Lethal Harassment of Double -Crested Cormorants to Improve Atlantic Salmon Smolt Survival. Northeastern Naturalist (20)1-18.

McCormick, S. D., Sheehan, T. F., Björnsson, B. T., Lipsky, C., Kocik, J. F., Regish, A. M., and M.F. O'Dea. 2013. Physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration, and ocean entry. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 70(999), 1-14.

Miller, A., Miller, T., Mills, K., and T.F. Sheehan. Retrospective analysis of Atlantic salmon marine growth and condition in the northwest Atlantic based on tag recovery data. Fisheries Oceanography 23(2) 103-115

Nieland, J. L., Sheehan, T. F., Saunders, R., Murphy, J. S. Trinko Lake, T. and J.R. Stevens. 2013. Dam Impact Analysis Model for Atlantic Salmon in the Penobscot River, Maine. Northeast Fisheries Science Center Reference Document 13-09. 524 p.

Otero, J., L'Abée-Lund, J. H., Castro-Santos, T., Leonardsson, K., Storvik, G. O., Jonsson, B., Dempson, B., Russell, I. C., Jensen, A. J., Baglinière, J.-L., Dionne, M., Armstrong, J. D., Romakkaniemi, A., Letcher, B. H., Kocik, J. F., Erkinaro, J., Poole, R., Rogan, G., Lundqvist, H., MacLean, J. C., Jokikokko, E., Arnekleiv, J. V., Kennedy, R. J., Niemelä, E., Caballero, P., Music, P. A., Antonsson, T., Gudjonsson, S., Veselov, A. E., Lamberg, A., Groom, S., Taylor, B. H., Taberner, M., Dillane, M., Arnason, F., Horton, G., Hvidsten, N. A., Jonsson, I. R., Jonsson, N., McKelvey, S., Næsje, T. F., Skaala, Ø., Smith, G. W., Sægrov, H., Stenseth, N. C. and Vøllestad, L. A. (2014), Basin-scale phenology and effects of climate variability on global timing of initial seaward migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Global Change Biology, 20: 61–75. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12363

2012 Publications

Dixon, H., Power, M., Dempson, J. B., Sheehan, T. F., and G. Chaput. 2012. Characterizing trophic status and shift in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, from freshwater to marine life cycle phases. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 69(9): 1646–1655.

Lacroix, G. L., Knox, D., Sheehan, T. F., Renkawitz, M. D., and M.L. Bartron. 2012. Distribution of U. S. Atlantic Salmon Postsmolts in the Gulf of Maine. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 141: 934-942.

Lipsky, C. A., Hastings, E. M., Brown, R., and R.B. Dill. 2012. Correcting visual implant elastomer tag identification to better evaluate adult Atlantic salmon returns from multiple stocking sites in the Penobscot River, Maine, USA. In American Fisheries Society Symposium (No. 76).

Miller, A. S., Sheehan, T. F., Spencer, R. C., Renkawitz, M. D., Friedland, K. D., and A.L. Meister. 2012. Description of the Historic US Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Tagging Programs and Subsequent Databases. Northeast Fisheries Science Center Reference Document 12-13. 56 pp.

Miller, A. S., Sheehan, T. F., Spencer, R. C., Renkawitz, M. D., Meister, A. L., and T.J. Miller. 2012. Revisiting the marine migration of US Atlantic salmon with historic Carlin tag data. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 69(9): 1609-1615.

Reddin, D. G, Hansen, L. P., Bakkestuen, V. Russell, I., White, J., Potter, E.C.E. , Sheehan, T. F., Ó Maoiléidigh, N., Dempson, J. B., Smith, G. W., Isaksson, A., Fowler, M., Jacobsen, J. A., Mork, K. A., and P. Amiro. 2012. Distribution of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at Greenland, 1960s to present. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 69(9), 1589–1597.

Renkawitz, M. D., Sheehan, T. F., and G.S. Goulette. 2012. Swimming depth, behavior, and survival of Atlantic salmon postsmolts in Penobscot Bay, Maine. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 141(5), 1219-1229.

Sheehan T. F., Assunção M. G. L., Chisholm N., Deschamps D., Dixon H., Renkawitz M., Rogan G., Nygaard R., King T. L., Robertson M. J., and N. O’Maoiléidigh. 2012. The international sampling program, continent of origin and biological characteristics of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) collected at West Greenland in 2011. US Dept. Commer. Northeast Fish. Sci. Cent. Ref. Doc. 12-24; 27 p.

Sheehan, T. F., Reddin, D. G., Chaput, G., and M.D. Renkawitz. 2012. SALSEA North America: a pelagic ecosystem survey targeting Atlantic salmon in the Northwest Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 69(9), 1580-1588.

2011 Publications

Renkawitz, M. D. and T.F. Sheehan. 2011. Feeding ecology of early marine phase Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post‐smolts. Journal of Fish Biology, 79(2), 356-373.

Sheehan, T. F., Renkawitz, M. D., and R.W. Brown. 2011. Surface trawl survey for U.S. origin Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Journal of Fish Biology. 79: 374-398.

2010 Publications

Music, P. A., Hawkes, J. P., and M.S. Cooperman. 2010. Magnitude and causes of smolt mortality in rotary screw traps: an Atlantic salmon case study. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 30(3), 713-722.

Sheehan, T. F., Legault, C. M., King, T. L., and A.P. Spidle. 2010. Probabilistic-based genetic assignment model: assignments to subcontinent of origin of the West Greenland Atlantic salmon harvest. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 67(3), 537-550.

2009 Publications

Kocik, J. F., Hawkes, J. P., Sheehan, T. F., Music, P. A., and K.F. Beland. 2009. Assessing estuarine and coastal migration and survival of wild Atlantic salmon smolts from the Narraguagus River, Maine using ultrasonic telemetry. In American Fisheries Society Symposium, 69, pp. 293-310.

2008 Publications

Colligan, M., Sheehan, T., Pruden, J., and J.F. Kocik. 2008. The challenges posed by international management of Atlantic salmon: balancing commercial, recreational and societal interests-The North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO). International Governance of Fisheries Ecosystems: learning from the past, finding solutions for the future, 458.

MacLean, S. A., Caldarone, E. M., and J.M. St. Onge-Burns. 2008. Estimating recent growth rates of Atlantic salmon smolts using RNA-DNA ratios from nonlethally sampled tissues. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 137(5), 1279-1284.

2006 Publications

Friedland, K.D., Clarke, L.M., Dutil, J.D., and M. Salminen. 2006. The Relationship Between Smolt and Postsmolt Growth for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Fishery Bulletin, 104:149-155.

Haas-Castro, R.E., Sheehan, T.F., Cadrin, S.X., and J.G.Trial. 2006. Scale Pattern Analysis Discriminates Atlantic Salmon by River-Reach Rearing Origin. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 26: 289-300.

Kocik, J. F. and T.F. Sheehan. 2006. Atlantic salmon. Status of Fishery Resources of the Northeastern US Revised December.

Reddin, D.G., Friedland, K.D., and P. Downton. 2006. Early marine use of thermal habitat by Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.). Fishery Bulletin, 104: 415–428.

Saunders, R, Hachey, M.A., and C.W. Fay.  2006.  Maine's Diadromous Fish Community: Past, Present, and Implications for Atlantic Salmon Recovery.  Fisheries 31 (11): 537-547.

Sweka, J.A., Legault, C.M., Beland, K.F., Trial, J., and M.J. Millard. 2006.  Evaluation of Removal Sampling for Basin-wide Assessment of Atlantic Salmon.  North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 26: 995-1002.

2005 Publications

Chaput, G., Legault, C.M., Reddin, D.G., Caron, F., and P.G. Amiro.  2005.  Provision of catch advice taking account of non-stationarity in productivity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the northwest Atlantic.  ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2: 131-143.

Friedland, K.D., Chaput, G., and J. MacLean.  Submitted. 2005. The Emerging Role of Climate in Post-smolt Growth of Atlantic Salmon. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62:1338-1349.

Giray, C., Opitz, H.M., MacLean, S.A., and D. Bouchard. 2005.  Comparisons of lethal versus non-lethal sources for the detection of Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV).  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 66: 181-185.

Legault, C.M. 2005.  Population viability analysis of Atlantic salmon in Maine, USA.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 134: 549-562.

Nerette, P., Dahoo, I., Hammell, L., Gagne, N., Barbash, P., MacLean, S., and C. Yason. 2005.  Estimation of the repeatability and reproducibility of three diagnostic tests for infectious salmon anaemia virus.  Journal of Fish Diseases, 28: 101-110.

Sheehan, T.F., Kocik, J.F., Cadrin, S.X., Legault, C.M., Atkinson, E., and D. Bengtson.  2005.  Marine Growth and Morphometrics for Three Populations of Atlantic Salmon from Eastern Maine, USA.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134 (3): 775-788.

2004 Publications

Beland, K.F., Trial, J.G. and J.F. Kocik.  2004.  Use of riffle and run habitats with aquatic vegetation by juvenile Atlantic salmon.  North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 24:525-533.

Clarke, L.M. and K.D. Friedland. 2004. Influence of growth and temperature on strontium deposition in the otoliths of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Biology, 65: 744-759.

FitzGerald, J. L., Sheehan, T.F., and J. F. Kocik.  2004.  Visibility of visual implant elastomer tags in Atlantic salmon reared for two years in marine net-pens.  North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 24: 222-227.

Reddin, D.G., Friedland, K.D., Downton, P., Dempson, J.B., and C.C. Mullins. 2004. Thermal habitat experienced by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kelts in coastal Newfoundland waters. Fisheries Oceanography, 13:24-35.

2003 Publications

Friedland, K. D., Reddin, D. G., and M. Castonguay.  2003. Ocean thermal conditions in the post-smolt nursery of North American Atlantic salmon. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 343-355.

Friedland K.D., Reddin, D.G., McMenemy, J.R., and K.F. Drinkwater. 2003. Multi-decadal trends in North American Atlantic salmon stocks and climate trends relevant to juvenile survival. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 60:563-583.

MacLean, S.A, Bouchard, D.A., and S.K. Ellis. 2003.  Survey of nonsalmonid marine fishes for detection of infectious salmon anemia virus and other salmonid pathogens. pp. 135-144. IN: Miller, O. and R. Cipriano, tech. coords.  International response to infectious salmon anemia: prevention, control, and eradication: symposium proceedings. 3-4 Sept 2002 New Orleans, LA.  Tech. Bull. 1902. Washington, D.C.: US Dept. Agriculture, APHIS, US Dept. Interior, US Geological Survey, US Dept Commerce, NMFS: (Invited Paper).

Magee, J.A., Obedzinski, M., McCormick, S.D., and J.F. Kocik.  2003.  Effects of episodic acidification on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  60: 214-221.

Spidle, A.P., Kalinowski, S.T., Lubinski, B.A., Perkins, D.L., Beland, K.F., Kocik, J.F., and T.L. King.  2003.  Population structure of Atlantic salmon in Maine with reference to populations from Atlantic Canada.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 132: 196-209.

Wells, B.K., Friedland, K.D., and L.M. Clarke. 2003. Increment patterns in otoliths and scales from mature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Mar Ecol Prog. Ser., 262: 293–298.

2002 Publications

Friedland, K.D. 2002. Emerging science and management issues with Atlantic salmon. Pages 117-136. in K.D. Lynch, M.L. Jones, and W.W. Taylor. Sustaining North American Salmon: Perspective Across Regimes and Disciplines. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Kocik, J.F. and K.D. Friedland.  2002.  Salmons and trouts, family Salmonidae.  In: Collette, B.B.; Klein-MacPhee, G., eds.  Bigelow and Schroeder's fishes of the Gulf of Maine.  3rd ed.  Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press; p. 170-181.

MacLean, S.A. 2002. Report on ISA in the US.  ICES Working Group on Pathology and Diseases of Marine Organisms, Annex 5: 2 pp.

2001 Publications

Beland, K.F., Kocik, J.F., VandeSande, J., and T. F. Sheehan.  2001.  Striped bass predation upon Atlantic salmon smolts in Maine.  Northeastern Naturalist, 8(3): 267-274.

Friedland, K.D., Walker, R.V., Davis, N.D, Myers, K.W., Boehlert, G.W., Urawa, S., and Y. Ueno. 2001. Open-ocean orientation and return migration routes of chum salmon based on temperature data from data storage tags. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 216: 235-252.

Kocik, J.F. and R.W. Brown.  2001.  From Game Fish to Tame Fish: Atlantic Salmon in North America, 1798 to 1998.  p. 1-29.  In M. L. Jones, K. D. Lynch, and W. W. Taylor, Editors.  Sustainability of Salmon Fisheries: Binational Perspectives United States - American Fisheries Society Symposium [Invited Paper].

Magee, J.A., Haines, T.A., Kocik, J.F., Beland, K.F., and S.D. McCormick.  2001.  Effects of acidity and aluminum on the physiology and migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon smolts in Maine, USA.  Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 130: 881-886.

2000 Publications

Friedland, K.D., Hansen, L.P., Dunkley, D.A., and J.C. MacLean. 2000. Linkage between ocean climate, post-smolt growth, and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the North Sea area. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57:419-429.

Friedland, K.D. and D.G. Reddin.  2000. Growth patterns of Labrador Sea Atlantic salmon postsmolts and the temporal scale of recruitment synchrony for North American salmon stocks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 57:1181-1189.

Reddin, D.G., Helbig, J., Thomas, A., Whitehouse, B.G., and K.D. Friedland. 2000. Survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) related to marine climate. Page 88-95. in, The Ocean Life of Atlantic Salmon, edited by D. Mills. Fishing News Books, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Walker, R.V., Myers, K.W., Davis, N.D., Aydin, K.Y., Friedland, K.D., Carlson, H.R., Boehlert, G.W., Urawa, S., Ueno, Y., and G. Anma. 2000. Diurnal variation in thermal environment experienced by salmonids in the North Pacific as indicated by data storage tags. Fisheries Oceanography, 9:171-186.

1999 Publications

Friedland, K.D. Dutil, J.D., and T. Sadusky. 1999. Growth patterns in postsmolts and the nature of the marine juvenile nursery for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Fishery Bulletin, 97:472-481.

Jonsson, B., Waples, R.S., and K.D. Friedland. 1999. Extinction considerations for diadromous fishes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56:405-409.

1998 Publications

Blackwell. B.F., Gries, G., Juanes, F., Friedland, K.D., Stolte, L.W., and J.F. McKeon. 1998. Simulating Migration Mortality of Atlantic Salmon Smolts in the Merrimack River. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 18:31-45.

Dodson, J.J., Gibson, R., Cunjak, R., Friedland, K.D., De Leaniz, C., Gross, M., Newbury, R., Nielsen, J., Power, M., and S. Roy. 1998. Elements in the development of conservation plans for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 55 (suppl. 1):312-323.

Friedland, K.D. 1998. Ocean climate influences on critical Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) life history events. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 55 (suppl. 1):119-130.

Friedland, K.D., Hansen, L.P., and D.A. Dunkley. 1998. Marine Temperatures Experienced by Post-smolts and the Survival of Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L., in the North Sea area. Fisheries Oceanography, 7:22-34.

Friedland, K.D., Reddin, D.G., Shimizu, N., Haas-Castro, R.E., and A.F. Youngson. 1998. Strontium: Calcium Ratios in Atlantic Salmon Otoliths and Observations on Growth and Maturation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 55: 1158-1168.

Kocik, J.F. and C.P. Ferreri.  1998.  Juvenile Production Variation in Salmonids: Population Dynamics, Habitat, and the Role of Spatial Relationships, p. 191-200. In C. Folt, M. Mather, and D. Parrish, Editors.  Integrating across scales: predicting patterns of change in Atlantic salmon.  Canadian Special Publication Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 55 (supplement 1).  [Invited Paper]

Reddin, D.G. and K. Friedland. 1998. Le nord-ouest Atlantique et le decline des saumons de primtemps d’Ecosse. Cahiers Scientifiques Avril 1998:17-36.

Sheehan, T.F. 1998. First record of the Ragged-tooth shark, Odontaspis ferox, off the U.S. Atlantic Coast. Marine Fisheries Review. 60(1): 33-34.

1997 Publications

Reddin, D.G., Helbig, J., Thomas, A., Whitehouse, B.G., and K.D. Friedland. 1997. Survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and its relation to marine climate. Pages 24-48 In Managing Wild Salmon, New Challenges-New Techniques, edited by F. Whoriskey and K. Whelan. Atlantic Salmon Federation, Galway Ireland.

1996 Publications

Friedland, K.D. and R.E. Haas-Castro. 1996. Marine post-smolt growth and age at maturity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Fish Biology, 48:1-15.

Friedland, K.D., Haas-Castro, R.E., and T.F. Sheehan. 1996. Comparative post-smolt growth, maturation, and survival in two stocks of Atlantic salmon. Fishery Bulletin, 94:654-663.

1994 Publications

Friedland, K.D. 1994. Marine survival of restoration stocks. Pages 223-239 in, A Hard Look at Some Tough Issues, edited by S. Calabi and A. Stout. Silver Quill Books, Camden, Maine.

Friedland, K.D., Esteves, C., Hansen, L.P., and R.A. Lund. 1994. Discrimination of Norwegian farm, ranch, and wild-origin Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., by image processing. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 1:117-128.

Friedland, K.D. and D.G. Reddin. 1994. The use of otolith morphology in stock discriminations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo  salar L.). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 51:91-98.

1993 Publications

Friedland, K.D., Reddin, D.G., and J.F. Kocik.  1993.  Marine survival of North American and European Atlantic salmon: effects of growth and environment.  ICES Journal of Marine Science.  50: 481-492.

1990 Publications

Bermingham, E., Forbes, S.H., Friedland K.D., and C. Pla. 1990. Discrimination between Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of North American and European origin using restriction analyses of mitochondrial DNA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 48:884-893.

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